Strings in C | C programming

Strings are defined as a one-dimensional array of characters. They are terminated by a null character ‘\0’. Thie above is the difference between arrays and strings. It is also referred to as a character array.

Declaration of strings:

It is similar to declaring 1-D arrays.


char str_name[size];

Initializing a String:

It can be done in several ways, similar to arrays,

1. char str[] = "HelloWorld";

2. char str[50] = "HelloWorld";

3. char str[] = {'H','e','l','l','o','W','o','r','l','d','\0'};

4. char str[11] = {'H','e','l','l','o','W','o','r','l','d','\0'};

Memory Representation of a string:

String Presentation in C/C++

Example Program:

#include <stdio.h>
int main () {
   char greeting[6] = {'H', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', '\0'};
   printf("Greeting message: %s\n", greeting );
   return 0;
Greeting message: Hello

The null character is not printed at the end of a string constant. When it initializes the array, the C compiler automatically places the ‘\0’ at the end of the string. 

Manipulating Strings:

Sr.No.Function & Purpose
1.strcpy(s1, s2); Copies string s2 into string s1.
2.strcat(s1, s2); Concatenates string s2 onto the end of string s1.
3.strlen(s1); Returns the length of string s1.
Funtions used to manipulate strings

Example Program: Using the above functions

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main () {

   char string_1[12] = "Hello";
   char string_2[12] = "World";
   char string_3[12];
   int  len ;
   strcpy(string_3, string_1);                                                            /* copy str1 into str3 */
   printf("The copied string is :  %s\n", string_3 );

   strcat( string_1, string_2);                                                           /* concatenates str1 and str2 */
   printf("The concatenated string is :  %s\n", string_1 );

   len = strlen(string_1);                                                                 /* total lenghth of str1 after concatenation */
   printf("Length of concatenated string is :  %d\n", len );

   return 0;
The copied string is :  Hello
The concatenated string is :  HelloWorld
Length of concatenated string is :  10

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