MEANING OF ORGANISING
The term ‘organising’ means systematic arrangement of activities. It refers to the method in which the work of a group of people is arranged and distributed among them to achieve the desired objectives of an organisation. Organising is bringing together various resources (physical, financial and human) and establishing relationship among the resources for achieving common objectives.
Thus, organising is the process of establishing orderly uses for all the resources available. The primary focus of organising is determining both what individual employees will do in an organisation and how their individual efforts should be combined for attaining the specific objectives.
The term ‘organising’ is not same as the term ‘organisation’ Organising is a function of management where asorganisation refers to a group of people who are working together to ahieve some common objectives.
As a management function, the term ‘organising’ refers to the
process of –
a. bringing together human and non- human resources (e.g materials,machines, money, men)
b. defining and establishing the authority, responsibility and relationships for achieving the objectives.
Thus, organisation is the result of the organising process.
Louis. A. Allen states “Organising is the process of identifying and
grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority, establishing relationships for the puspose of enabling people to work together most effectively in accomplishing objectives.”
Koontz and O’ Dounelldefine Organising as “the establishment of
authority relationships with the provision for co-ordination between them
both vertically and horizontally in the enterprise”
A study of the above definitions shows that organising involves in :
a) identifing and grouping of work,
b) defining the responsibility,
c) delegating authority,
d) establishing of structural relationship and
e) co-ordinating interrelated activities
IMPORTANCE OF ORGANISING
The Organising function is extremely important in management
process as it is the primary mechanism in the hands of managers to organise
the plans. Organising creates and maintains relationship between all
organisational resources by indicating which resources are to be used for
specified activities and when, where, and how they are to be used.Athorough
organising effort helps managers to reduce the possibility of duplication of
efforts and also idle or unutilised resources.
The importance of organising is briefly explained below:
Organising increases managerial efficiency
it avoids delays, duplication or confusion in performance and removes friction or rivalry among employees. All activities are spelled out in order of their importance and are allotted to individuals as fixed duties. The
assignment of fixed duties provides certainty and promptness in the doing of the work without any hassle.
It Promotes specilisation
The detailed job specifications help to place the right persons in the right jobs on the basis of their knowledge, skill and experience. By matching jobs with individuals and vice-verse, organisation enlists both the benefits of functional and occupational specialisation.
It ensures flow of activities
Organisation structures are developed on scientific management basis (i.e. time, motion and fatigue study) to ensure logical flow of activities. Through the study of scientific management the activities and assignments are arranged in such a manner that it facilitates their performance in an easy and comfortable
It clarifies authority and power
The process of organising clarifies the authority of management of the different departments. This minimises the conflict and confusion about the powers of managers.
It acts as a source of support, security and satisfaction
It provides a definite status, position in relation to others within the organisation.
It ensures better communication
Organisation structure provides a network of relationships. This makes interaction and
communication among the members and departments of the organization more effective.
It stimulates creative and innovative thinking
Identified areas of work and delegation of authority promote creativity and innovativeness
among the employees in their respective fields as well as in the organisation as a whole.
It helps in the smooth delegation of authority
Executive can delegate the authority downwards so that they can get the things done smoothly. It also helps in fixing up the responsibility for the task. A good organisation will clearly define the authority responsibility relationship.
It provides scope for training and development
Management personnel are trained to acquire a wide and varied knowledge and experience in diverse activities by their placement in different jobs through job rotation and thus they are prepared for higher
responsibilities which require generalists rather than specialists. For example if bumper crop production is the objective, the organising process can be divided into major tasks such as tilling, planting, fertilisation, watering, allocating resources like equipment and manpower etc.