## INTRODUCTION : NEXT GENERATION QUANTUM COMPUTING

NEXT GENERATION QUANTUM COMPUTING : Quantum computing is the area of study focused on developing computer technology based on the principles of Quantum Mechanics. The power of the quantum computer is that it is based on a logic that is not limited merely to on-or-off, true-or-false scenarios. Quantum computing uses Qubits. It can represent a zero, a one and both, which is known as Superposition.

It uses phenomenon such as Quantum Tunnelling, Quantum Entanglement to solve more complex calculations. From optimization problems to simulation, machine learning, weather forecasting all will be possible with accurate outcomes with this technology.

## What Is Computing ?

The process of utilizing computer technology to complete a task. Swiping a debit card, sending an email, or using a cell phone can all be considered forms of computing

## What Is A Computer ?

Computer an electronic device that designed to work with Information. Computer cannot do anything without a Program

## How A Computer Works ?

A classical computer basically works its functions using bits, logical gates, transistors.

### Information : NEXT GENERATION QUANTUM COMPUTING

In computer, information, in its most basic form, can represented as a sequence of bits.

## What Is A Bit ?

It is the basic unit of data in computers. All the data in computers presented in form of bits.

A bit can in one of the two states, i.e. either be zero or one at a time.

Numbers can represented in binary using decimal to binary conversion. Similarly words using ASCII/UTF-8, graphics using jpeg, png, mpeg, etc. These are all just sequence of bits.

## Logic Gates : NEXT GENERATION QUANTUM COMPUTING

A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit. Most logic gates have two inputs and one output. At any given moment, every terminal is in one of the two binary conditions low (0) or high (1), represented by different voltage levels.

## QUANTUM MECHANICS : NEXT GENERATION QUANTUM COMPUTING

It is the branch of mechanics that deals with the mathematical description of the motion and interaction of subatomic particles, incorporating the concepts of quantization of energy, wave–particle duality, the uncertainty principle, and the entanglement, superposition, annealing, tunneling.

### Quantization of energy

This is a function of Analog-to-digital converters

### Wave particle duality

Wave–particle duality the concept that every elementary particle or quantic entity may partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

### Superposition

Says an object can in two places at once while not observed

However, once a measurement of a particle made, and for example its energy or position known, the superposition lost and now we have a particle in one known state.

### Quantum tunnelling

For example a ball trying to roll over a hill particles can, with a very small probability, tunnel to the other side.

### Quantum entanglement

It says two objects are related to each other in way that one’s states cannot be described independent of another.

## QUANTUM COMPUTING : NEXT GENERATION QUANTUM COMPUTING

### Qubit : NEXT GENERATION QUANTUM COMPUTING

A quantum bit is a superposed version of classical bit where it can be a 0, 1 and both 0&1 at the same time.

### Quantum Gates : NEXT GENERATION QUANTUM COMPUTING

In quantum computing and specifically the quantum circuit model of computation, a quantum gate (or quantum logic gate) is a basic quantum circuit operating on a small number of qubits.

### Lets Build A Qubit : NEXT GENERATION QUANTUM COMPUTING

Taking a phosphorous atom which contains one electron on outer cell we can build a qubit. The phosphorous atom embedded into silicon crystal followed by tiny transistors.

### Software and Programming : NEXT GENERATION QUANTUM COMPUTING

Just as the classical computing world needed a software ecosystem to build a broad community of application developers and users, the quantum computing world does as well. The D-Wave 2000Q system provides a standard Internet API, with client libraries available for C/C++, Python, and MATLAB.

This interface allows users to access the system either as a cloud resource over a network, or integrated into their high-performance computing environments and data centres. Access also available through D-Wave’s hosted cloud service. Using D-Wave’s development tools and client libraries, developers can create algorithms and applications within their existing environments using industry-standard tools.

## APPLICATIONS OF NEXT GENERATION QUANTUM COMPUTING

### Optimisation Problems

In mathematics and computer science, an optimization problem is the problem of finding the best solution from all feasible solutions.

### Security Threat

The current RSA is based on prime factors of large numbers such as a 2048 bit number. The current classical computer will take nearly 3 biilion years to break this using the public key provide with hit and trial method.

But now with the use of quantum computers and Shor’s quantum algorithm for factoring numbers using quantum computers it can factored and break the security of maximum current security on the internet.

### Solution To Threat

#### Quantum cryptography

As qubits can made of polarized photons, say we transfer photons from sender to receiver using fiber optics cables and the receiver will measure those photons into bits and read the message.

The receiver needs to match the filter using which the sender has sent the key. Because according to quantum mechanics *”if receiver uses a diagonal detector on photon sent in vertical or horizontal photon, it’ll have a 50-50 chance of measuring either vertical or horizontal. i.e. 1 or 0.”*

## CONCLUSION

The power of the quantum computer that it based on a logic that not limited merely to on-or-off, true-or-false scenarios. It will use practical ways to solve practical problems on large scale. Change how we use computers and secures them now. It can break most of current cyber securities we currently use in just seconds. On the other it will help us solving current unsolvable problems like optimization problems to simulation, machine learning, weather forecasting all will be possible with accurate outcomes with this technology. It also come up with solution to security threat with quantum encryption method. It will be only in our hands whether to use it for good or bad.